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顶刊里 Abstract 的写作套路,我帮你拆解好了!

摘要(Abstract 或 Summary) 是一篇论文的缩影,是对全文内容的高度提炼和概括。 摘要能让读者在最短的时间里掌握论文最重要的信息,促使读者进一步阅读和引用,进而扩大论…

摘要(Abstract 或 Summary) 是一篇论文的缩影,是对全文内容的高度提炼和概括。

摘要能让读者在最短的时间里掌握论文最重要的信息,促使读者进一步阅读和引用,进而扩大论文的影响和价值。

然而,当前很多学者对如何写好 SCI 论文中摘要并不十分明晰,本文以 LANCET 上在线发表的文章为例,浅谈下 SCI 论文摘要的写作套路。

在介绍摘要写作之前,概括下常用的 Abstract 类型,包括描述性,信息型,结构化和非结构化。

对于 Lancet,NEJM 和 JAMA 这些顶刊的摘要,文章的摘要各有风格:

  • NEJM 摘要包括 BackgroundMethodsResultsConclusions 四个部分。

  • Lancet 摘要包括 BackgroundMethodsFindingsInterpretations 四个部分。

  • JAMA摘要包括 ObjectiveDesignSetting and ParticipantsInterventionsMain outcomes and MeasuresResultsConclusion 部分。


其中,我们最常见的是结构化摘要,本文以 2019 年 8 月在 Lancet 发表的题为《Prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma in China: a national cross- sectional study》文章为例,和大家分享下 SCI 摘要写作的套路。

图片来源:THE LANCET



BACKGROUND:

Asthma is a common chronic airway disease worldwide. Despite its large population size, China has had no comprehensive study of the national prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma.

背景介绍,用 1-2 句话,引入本研究的问题。

We therefore aimed to estimate the national prevalence of asthma in a representative sample of the Chinese population. 

直截了当地介绍研究目的,注意 Lancet 杂志没有 Objectives 项,研究目的在背景中阐明。

注意:表示研究目的常用语:动词不定式 + 动词原型,如:

  • To investigate

  • To explore

  • We aimed to assess…

  • To examine…

  • To determine whether..

  • To study…


METHODS:

A representative sample of 57 779 adults aged 20 years or older was recruited for the national cross-sectional China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study using a multi-stage stratified sampling method with parameters derived from the 2010 census.

概括研究设计类型,研究对象,研究年份及资料来源。

Ten Chinese provinces, representative of all socioeconomic settings, from six geographical regions were selected, and all assessments were done in local health centres. Exclusion criteria were temporary residence, inability to take a spirometry test, hospital treatment of cardiovascular conditions or tuberculosis, and pregnancy and breastfeeding.

研究中明确的排除标准。

Asthma was determined on the basis of a self-reported history of diagnosis by a physician or by wheezing symptoms in the preceding 12 months. All participants were assessed with a standard asthma questionnaire and were classed as having or not having airflow limitation through pulmonary function tests before and after the use of a bronchodilator (400 μg of salbutamol).

对研究待分析的主要健康结局进行定义,介绍疾病结局的诊断标准,常见的有临床金标准诊断,生化指标分析或问卷调查结果。

Risk factors for asthma were examined by multivariable-adjusted analyses done in all participants for whom data on the variables of interest were available.

说明采用的统计分析方法。

Disease management was assessed by the self-reported history of physician diagnosis, treatments, and hospital visits in people with asthma.

Abstract 中方法部分的写作,主要说明研究课题的设计思路,使用何种材料和方法,如何对照分组,以及采用何种数据处理方法。

FINDINGS:

Between June 22, 2012, and May 25, 2015, 57 779 participants were recruited into the CPH study. 50 991 (21 446 men and 29 545 women) completed the questionnaire survey and had reliable post-bronchodilator pulmonary function test results and were thus included in the final analysis.

写结果时,首先从研究对象资料入手,如果是生物或临床方面的文章,应先提及研究的生物体,病人群组结果等。

The overall prevalence of asthma in our sample was 4.2% (95% CI 3.1-5.6), representing 45.7 million Chinese adults. The prevalence of asthma with airflow limitation was 1.1% (0.9-1.4), representing 13.1 million adults. Cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1.89, 95% CI 1.26-2.84; p=0.004), allergic rhinitis (3.06, 2.26-4.15; p<0.0001), childhood pneumonia or bronchitis (2.43, 1.44-4·10; p=0.002), parental history of respiratory disease (1.44, 1.02-2.04; p=0.040), and low education attainment (p=0.045) were associated with prevalent asthma. In 2032 people with asthma, only 28·8% (95% CI 19.7-40.0) reported ever being diagnosed by a physician, 23·4% (13.9-36.6) had a previous pulmonary function test, and 5.6% (3.1-9.9) had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids.

结果部分很详细,提供了 OR 和 95% CI,以及差异统计学意义的 P 值结果。

Furthermore, 15.5% (11.4-20.8) people with asthma reported at least one emergency room visit and 7.2% (4.9-10.5) at least one hospital admission due to exacerbation of respiratory symptoms within the preceding year.

结果部分是摘要的最重要的部分,读者在阅读一篇 SCI 摘要时,主要目的就是为了了解研究的主要发现,以及对自己的研究是否有帮助,故而,建议在写 Abstract 中尽量提供结果的细节内容

INTERPRETATION:

Asthma is prevalent but largely undiagnosed and undertreated in China. It is crucial to increase the awareness of asthma and disseminate standardised treatment in clinical settings to reduce the disease burden.

简要对文章的分析结果进行总结,给出符合科学规律的结论,或对未来研究进行展望。


接下来,分享一下 Abstract 写作的注意事项

1. 字数要求

不同的 SCI 杂志对摘要的字数有不同的要求,大多数为 150-350 个词,建议作者在阅读「Guideline/information for authors」的要求后,对稿件的摘要进行撰写。

2. 写作语态要求

摘要写作中的语态多为一般现在时一般过去时,当然,有时读者也会在摘要中看到现在完成时或过去完成时,而它们的功能也很明确。

一般现在时,常用于说明研究目的,叙述研究内容,描述结论或建议等。而概述实验程序,方法和主要结果时,通常用过去时。

3. 内容要求

摘要写作围绕背景,目的,方法结果和结论几个方面内容注意应排除本学科领域已成为常识的内容,切忌把应在引言中出现的内容写入摘要,一般也不要对论文内容进行诠释或评论。

总结一下,本文以 Lancet 发表的文章为例,向大家分享了 SCI 论文中摘要的写作,建议作者在平时多写多练,不断提升科研写作能力!

原文链接:
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)31147-X/fulltext
封面来源:站酷海洛 Plus

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